Californium, a late actinide with twenty known isotopes, is a man-made transuranium chemical element that does not occur naturally. It was first identified by Glenn Seaborg and his co-workers in February 1950 in an experiment that used a 60-inch cyclotron to bombard curium isotope Cm242 with helium ions:
24296Cm + 42He → 24598Cf + 10n.
Although primarily named for the state of California, it also honors the University of California at Berkeley where many elements were first discovered.
Abbreviated form: [Rn] 5f10 7s2 .
The following table lists the ionization energies IE (ionization potentials); the IE is the energy required in electron volts (eV) per atom to separate a given electron from an Californium atom.
An overview of the nuclides as well as the isotopic data and properties are listed on the following page: Californium isotopes.
The following table lists some calculated or experimentally determined physical data or material properties of californium.
The element has a certain practical importance in the form of the isotope californium-252, which is used in various areas as a neutron source.
 - S. G. Thomson:
New element californium (atomic number 98).
In: OSTI Technical Report, (1950), DOI https://www.osti.gov/biblio/381639.
 - Thomas Albrecht-Schmitt:
In: Nature Chemistry, (2014), DOI 10.1038/nchem.2035.
 - Samantha K. Cary, Monica Vasiliu, Ryan E. Baumbach et al.:
Emergence of californium as the second transitional element in the actinide series.
In: Nature Communications, (2015), DOI 10.1038/ncomms7827.
Last update: 2022-12-05
© 1996 - 2023 ChemLin